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Catalogue No.


Cell Line Name


Cell Line Description

Established from the kidney of a normal adult African Green monkey. Susceptible to a wide range of viruses including polio, rubella, arboviruses and reoviruses. 

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General Info



Other Collection No.


Release Conditions

Restricted - CITES (Convention on the International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) licence required for all orders outside the United Kingdom


Tissue of Origin



2n = 60, modal no. 58


Virus studies: polio, rubella, arboviruses and reoviruses


None Stated

Culture Conditions

Cell Type


Subculture Routine

Split sub-confluent cultures (70-80%) 1:3 to 1:6 i.e. seeding at 1-3x10,000 cells/cm² using 0.05% trypsin or trypsin/EDTA; 5% CO₂; 37°C.

Culture Medium

DMEM + 2mM Glutamine + 10% Foetal Bovine Serum (FBS).

Growth Mode


Additional Info


Dr B Thornton, PHLS CAMR, Porton Down, Salisbury

Country of Origin

United Kingdom

Hazard Group (ACDP)

Hazard Group (ACDP) 2



Nippon Rinsho 1963;21:1209


1) J Gen Virol; 1996 Oct: 77 ( Pt 10): 2547-54"Dengue 1 virus binding to human hepatoma HepG2 and simian Vero cell surfaces differs." 2) Microb Pathog; 1995 Mar: 18(3): 223-9" Catabolite repression of the adhesion of Vero cytotoxin-producing Escherichia coli of serogroups 0157 and 0111." 3) J Infect Dis; 1995 Jul: 172(1): 250-3" Replication of influenza A viruses in a green monkey kidney continuous cell line (Vero)." 4) Arch Virol; 1995: 140(2): 289-306" Expression of nonstructural protein NS3 of African horsesickness virus (AHSV): evidence for a cytotoxic effect of NS3 in insect cells, and characterization of the gene products in AHSV infected Vero cells." 5) J Biol Chem; 1994 Feb 11: 269(6): 4035-41"Localization of O-glycan initiation, sphingomyelin synthesis, and glucosylceramide synthesis in Vero cells with respect to the endoplasmic reticulum-Golgi intermediate compartment." 6) J Virol Methods; 1993 Nov: 45(1): 1-17 " Brefeldin A affects West Nile virus replication in Vero cells but not C6/36 cells." 7) Arch Virol; 1992: 122(1-2): 201-6"Adaptation of transmissible gastroenteritis virus to growth in non-permissive Vero cells." 8) Biologicals; 1992 Mar: 20(1): 59-65"Polyvinyl formal surface promotes continuous growth of Vero cells in protein-free medium." 9) Cytotechnology; 1991 Nov: 7(3): 165-72"A novel Vero cell line for use as a mammalian host-vector system in serum-free medium." 10) J Gen Virol; 1991 Jun: 72 ( Pt 6): 1331-42 "Characterization of yellow fever virus proteins E and NS1 expressed in Vero and Spodoptera frugiperda cells." 11) Microbiol Immunol; 1991: 35(11): 963-73"Different antiviral potencies of BV-araU and related nucleoside analogues against herpes simplex virus type 1 in human cell lines and Vero cells." 12) Biotechnology (N Y); 1990 Sep: 8(9): 858-62"Enhancement of gene expression by matic hybridization with primary cells: high-level synthesis of the hepatitis B surface antigen in monkey Vero cells by fusion with primary hepatocytes." 13) Tsitologiia; 1990: 32(7): 741-8"A karyotype study of the Vero cell line cultured long term in a monolayer by static and roller methods." 14) FEMS Microbiol Lett; 1990 May: 57(1-2): 181-5"HEp-2 cell adherence and Vero cell cytotoxin production by EPEC strains ilated from children with diarrhoea in New Zealand." 15) J Gen Virol; 1989 Sep: 70 ( Pt 9): 2487-94"Propagation of hepatitis A virus in hybrid cell lines derived from marmoset liver and Vero cells." 16) J Trop Med Hyg; 1989 Dec: 92(6): 379-82 "Development of Vero cell miniculture assay for detection of heat-labile enterotoxin of Escherichia coli and its significance." 17) J Med Microbiol; 1989 Jan: 28(1): 59-67 "Invasion of Vero cells by Salmonella species." 18) Toxicon; 1989: 27(10): 1095-104 "Monoclonal antibodies against Vero cells that protect against diphtheria toxin." 19) J Virol Methods; 1989 Jun: 24(3): 253-64"Detection of the bunyavirus Germiston in VERO and Aedes albopictus C6/36 cells by in situ hybridization using cDNA and asymmetric RNA probes." 20) Biochem Biophys Res Commun; 1988 Mar 30: 151(3): 1371-7"The effect of a Clostridium perfringens 8-6 enterotoxin on viability and macromolecular synthesis in Vero cells." 21) J Cell Physiol; 1988 Jun: 135(3): 407-15"Binding of diphtheria toxin to CHO-K1 and Vero cells is dependent on cell density." 22) Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health; 1988 Mar: 19(1): 95-100 "Survival of Vero, myeloma and hybridoma cells during cold storage." 23) J Biol Chem; 1988 Feb 15: 263(5): 2518-25"Low pH-induced release of diphtheria toxin A-fragment in Vero cells. Biochemical evidence for transfer to the cytosol." 24) Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis; 1987 Feb: 6(2): 145-9"Comparison of the Ortho Cultureset (Vero cells) and Difco Cellmatics system (mink lung and primary rabbit kidney cells) for the detection of herpes simplex virus from clinical specimens." 25) J Biol Chem; 1987 Sep 25: 262(27): 13246-53"Diphtheria toxin receptor. Identification of specific diphtheria toxin-binding proteins on the surface of Vero and BS-C-1 cells." 26) Int J Parasitol; 1987 Feb: 17(3): 829-34"Isolation and characterization of toxoplasma exo-antigens from in vitro culture in MRC5 and Vero cells." 27) J Biol Chem; 1986 Feb 15: 261(5): 2134-9"Metabolism and mode of action of (R)-9-(3,4-dihydroxybutyl)guanine in herpes simplex virus-infected vero cells." 28) J Biol Chem; 1986 Feb 5: 261(4): 1570-5"Interactions between diphtheria toxin entry and anion transport in Vero cells. IV. Evidence that entry of diphtheria toxin is dependent on efficient anion transport." 29) Adv Exp Med Biol; 1986: 195 Pt B: 151-6"The biosynthesis of deoxyguanosine triphosphate in herpes simplex type-1 infected Vero cells treated with acyclovir and hydroxyurea." 30) Biochim Biophys Acta; 1986 Apr 14: 856(2): 231-6"Unidirectional flux of phenylalanine into Vero cells. Measurement using paired tracers in perfused cultures." 31) J Biol Chem; 1986 Feb 5: 261(4): 1562-9"Interactions between diphtheria toxin entry and anion transport in vero cells. III. Effect on toxin binding and anion transport of tumor-promoting phorbol esters, vanadate, fluoride, and salicylate." 32) J Hyg (Lond); 1986 Jun: 96(3): 483-9"Purified Vero cell rabies vaccine and human diploid cell strain vaccine: comparison of neutralizing antibody responses to post-exposure regimens." 33) J Cell Sci; 1986 Mar: 81: 65-103"Optimization of environment for high density Vero cell culture: effect of dissolved oxygen and nutrient supply on cell growth and changes in metabolites." 34) Arch Virol; 1986: 90(1-2): 87-96"Effect of interferon on Vero cells persistently infected with SSPE virus and lytically infected with measles virus." 35) Med Microbiol Immunol (Berl); 1986: 175(2-3): 63-6"Regulation of Pichinde virus replication in Vero and BHK-21 cells." 36) J Gen Virol; 1986 Jul: 67 ( Pt 7): 1343-50 "African swine fever virus gene expression in infected Vero cells." 37) J Virol; 1986 May: 58(2): 676-9"Establishment of a Vero cell line persistently infected with African swine fever virus." 38) J Biol Chem; 1986 Feb 5: 261(4): 1553-61"Interactions between diphtheria toxin entry and anion transport in Vero cells. II. Inhibition of anion antiport by diphtheria toxin." 39) J Biol Chem; 1986 Feb 5: 261(4): 1542-52"Interactions between diphtheria toxin entry and anion transport in Vero cells. I. Anion antiport in Vero cells." 40) Exp Cell Res; 1985 Aug: 159(2): 287-304"Receptor-mediated endocytosis of a ricin-colloidal gold conjugate in vero cells. Intracellular routing to vacuolar and tubulo-vesicular portions of the endosomal system." 41) Biochem J; 1985 Jun 1: 228(2): 521-3"Effect of the chaotropic anions thiocyanate and perchlorate on the entry of ricin into Vero cells." 42) Zentralbl Veterinarmed [B; 1985 Mar: 32(3): 202-12"Ultrastructure of the asexual multiplication of Besnoitia besnoiti (Marotel, 1912) in Vero- and CRFK-cell cultures." 43) Zentralbl Bakteriol Mikrobiol Hyg [A; 1985 Aug: 260(1): 100-7"Adherence of Fusobacterium necrophorum to Vero cells." 44) Z Parasitenkd; 1985: 71(1): 15-7"Isolation and purification of amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi from cultured vero cells." 45) Cell Biochem Funct; 1985 Jul: 3(3): 205-16"Morphological changes in CHO and VERO cells treated with T-2 mycotoxin. Correlation with inhibition of protein synthesis." 46) Infect Immun; 1985 Dec: 50(3): 721-7"Receptor-mediated entry of diphtheria toxin into monkey kidney (Vero) cells: electron microscopic evaluation." 47) Biochim Biophys Acta; 1985 Sep 30: 846(3): 334-41"Evidence that membrane phospholipids and protein are required for binding of diphtheria toxin in Vero cells." 48) Can J Microbiol; 1985 Mar: 31(3): 302-4"Cytotoxic effects of culture supernatants of oral bacteria and various organic acids on Vero cells." 49) Exp Cell Res; 1985 Apr: 157(2): 556-60 "Scanning electron microscopic examination of the secondary constriction of vero cells." 50) J Gen Virol; 1985 Mar: 66 ( Pt 3): 559-71"Synthesis of proteins and glycoproteins in dengue type 2 virus-infected vero and Aedes albopictus cells."

Available Formats

  • Frozen
  • DNA-5µg (100ng/µl)

If use of this culture results in a scientific publication, it should be cited in the publication as: Vero (ECACC 84113001).

Unless specified otherwise, at ECACC we routinely handle all of our cell lines at containment level 2 in accordance with the ACDP guidelines (Advisory Committee on Dangerous Pathogens) (UK). All cell cultures have the potential to carry as yet unidentified adventitious agents. It is the responsibility of the end user to ensure that their facilities comply with biosafety regulations for their own country. ACDP Guidance: Biological agents: Managing the risks in laboratories and healthcare premises.

The Culture Collections represent deposits of cultures from world-wide sources. While every effort is made to ensure details distributed by Culture Collections are accurate, Culture Collections cannot be held responsible for any inaccuracies in the data supplied. References where quoted are mainly attributed to the establishment of the cell culture and not for any specific property of the cell line, therefore further references should be obtained regarding cell culture characteristics. Passage numbers where given act only as a guide and Culture Collections does not guarantee the passage number stated will be the passage number received by the customer.

Cultures supplied by Culture Collections are for research purposes only. Enquiries regarding the commercial use of a cell line are referred to the depositor of the cell line. Some cell lines have additional special release conditions such as the requirement for a material transfer agreement to be completed by the potential recipient prior to the supply of the cell line. Please view the Terms & Conditions of Supply for more information.